Delta Model

Delta Model
Two types of signals (top-down and bottom-up) are assumed in this model.  Top-down signals are hypothesized to be derived from a higher level of the visual system and represent the predictive visual information.  Bottom-up signals are hypothesized to be derived from a lower level of the visual system and represent the original sensory information.  Subtraction occurs between the two signals; the resultant prediction error (delta) is input to a higher level of the visual system that operates the top-down signal to minimize the prediction error.

Motion Aftereffect can also be well explained by the subtraction algorithm in Delta Model, because the subtraction can induce the inverted motion direction observed in Motion Aftereffect. The same logic can be applied to various kinds of Aftereffect illusions.

Please refer to the following paper for detail.

Watanabe, E., Matsunaga, W., and Kitaoka, A., Motion signals deflect relative positions of moving objects, Vision Research 50, 2381-2390 (2010)


Kebab Illusion

A Variation of Kebab Illusion

Here, I show you new illusion, Kebab Illusion.  This illusion is a GIF animation which is composed of three frames.

Time-line of Kebab Illusion

You will percieve the illusory motion in the line.  At the same time, the pre-cue presented at the Frame 1 may shift in the direction of the motion.

A Variation of Kebab Illusion

Real and Percieved

Plesase refer to the following paper and Prof Kitaoka's Web Page for detail.

Watanabe, E., Matsunaga, W., and Kitaoka, A., Motion signals deflect relative positions of moving objects, Vision Research 50, 2381-2390 (2010)

Prof Kitaoka's Web page


Habituation of medaka (Oryzias latipes) demonstrated by open-field testing

Habituation to novel environments is frequently studied to analyze cognitive phenotypes in animals, and an open-field test is generally conducted to investigate the changes that occur in animals during habituation.  The test has not been used in behavioral studies of medaka (Oryzias latipes), which is recently being used in behavioral research.  Therefore, we examined the open-field behavior of medaka on the basis of temporal changes in 2 conventional indexes of locomotion and position.  The findings of our study clearly showed that medaka changed its behavior through multiple temporal phases as it became more familiar with new surroundings; this finding is consistent with those of other ethological studies in animals.  During repeated open-field testing on 2 consecutive days, we observed that horizontal locomotion on the second day was less than that on the first day, which suggested that habituation is retained in fish for days.  This temporal habituation was critically affected by water factors or visual cues of the tank, thereby suggesting that fish have spatial memory of their surroundings.  Thus, the data from this study will afford useful fundamental information for behavioral phenotyping of medaka and for elucidating cognitive phenotypes in animals.

Eye of Medaka fish
Keywords: habituation; locomotion; medaka; novel environment; open-field test

Matsunaga, W., and, Watanabe, E., Habituation of medaka (Oryzias latipes) demonstrated by open-field testing, Behavioural Processes 85, 142-150 (2010)




*Current member

Eiji Watanabe (Associate Professor)
Masaki Yasugi (NIBB Research fellow)
Nozomi Nishiumi (Research fellow)

*Past member

Sachiko Aono (Visiting Scientist)
Tomohiro Nakayasu (NIBB Research fellow)
Wataru Matsunaga (NIBB Research fellow)
Misuzu Yamada (NIBB Research fellow)



Watanabe E, Kitaoka A, Sakamoto K, Yasugi M and Tanaka K, Illusory Motion Reproduced by Deep Neural Networks Trained for Prediction. Frontiers in Psychology  9:345. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00345 (2018)

Tsuyoshi Shimmura, Tomoya Nakayama, Ai Shinomiya, Shoji Fukamachi, Masaki Yasugi, Eiji Watanabe, Takayuki Shimo, Takumi Senga, Toshiya Nishimura, Minoru Tanaka, Yasuhiro Kamei, Kiyoshi Naruse, Takashi Yoshimura, Dynamic plasticity in phototransduction regulates seasonal changes in color perception. Nature Communications 8, Article number: 412 (2017)

Tomohiro Nakayasu, Masaki Yasugi, Soma Shiraishi, Seiichi Uchida, Eiji Watanabe, Three-dimensional computer graphic animations for studying social approach behaviour in medaka fish: Effects of systematic manipulation of morphological and motion cues. PLOS ONEhttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175059 (2017)

Nakayasu, T., and Watanabe, E., Biological motion stimuli are attractive to medaka fish. Animal Cognition 17, 559-575 (2014).

Hiyama, T.Y., Yoshida M., Matsumoto, M., Suzuki, R., Matsuda, T., Watanabe, E., and Noda, M., Endothelin-3 Expression in the Subfornical Organ Enhances the Sensitivity of Nax, the Brain Sodium-Level Sensor, to Suppress Salt Intake. Cell Metabolism 17, 1-13 (2013).

Matsunaga, W., and Watanabe, E., Visual motion with pink noise induces predation behaviour. Scientific Reports 2, 219 (2012).

Watanabe, E., Matsunaga, W., and Kitaoka, A., Motion signals deflect relative positions of moving objects, Vision Research 50, 2381-2390 (2010)

Matsunaga, W., and, Watanabe, E., Habituation of medaka (Oryzias latipes) demonstrated by open-field testing, Behavioural Processes 85, 142-150 (2010)

Hiyama, T.Y., Matsuda, S., Fujikawa, A., Matsumoto, M., Watanabe, E., Kajiwara, H., Niimura, F., and Noda, M., Autoimmunity to the sodium-level sensor in the brain causes essential hypernatremia, Neuron 66, 508-522 (2010)
This paper is selected as the featured article of NEURON.
This paper is selected as a 'Must read' paper by Faculty of 1000 (selected by Dr. Angela Vincent).

Shimizu, H., Watanabe, E., Hiyama, T.Y., Nagakura, A., Fujikawa, A., Okado, H., Yanagawa, Y., Obata, K., and Noda, M., Glial Nax channels control lactate signaling to neurons for brain [Na+] sensing, Neuron  54, 59-72 (2007)
This paper is selected as the featured article of NEURON.
This paper is selected as the Editors' Choice of Science's STKE.

This paper is selected as a 'Eceptional' paper by Faculty of 1000.

Watanabe, E., Hiyama, T.Y., Shimizu, H., Kodama, R., Hayashi, N., Miyata, S., Yanagawa, Y., Obata, K., and Noda, M., Sodium-level-sensitive sodium channel Nax is expressed in glial laminate processes in the sensory circumventricular organs, American Journal of Physiology 290, R568-R576 (2006)
This paper is selected as a 'Must read' paper by Faculty of 1000 (selected by Dr. Alastair Ferguson).

Niisato, K., Fujikawa, A., Komai, S., Shintani, T., Watanabe, E., Sakaguchi, G., Katsuura, G., Manabe, T. and Noda, M., Age-dependent enhancement of hippocampal LTP and impairment of spatial learning through the ROCK pathway in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z-deficient mice, Journal of Neuroscience 25, 1081-1088 (2005)

Hiyama, T.Y., Watanabe, E., Okado, H. and Noda, M., The subfornical organ is the primary locus of sodium-level sensing by Nax sodium channels for the control of salt-intake behavior, Journal of Neuroscience 24, 9276-9281 (2004)
This paper is selected as a 'Recommended' paper by Faculty of 1000 (selected by Dr. Stephan Roper). 

Watanabe, U., Shimura, T., Sako, N., Kitagawa, J., Shingai, T. Watanabe, E., Noda, M. and Yamamoto, T., A comparison of voluntary salt-intake behavior in Nax-gene deficient and wild-type mice with reference to peripheral taste inputs, Brain Research 967, 247-256 (2003)

Watanabe, E., Hiyama, T.Y., Kodama, R. and Noda, M., Nax sodium channel is expressed in non-myelinating Schwann cells and alveolar type II cells, Neuroscience Letters 330, 109-113 (2002)

Hiyama, T.Y., Watanabe, E., Ono, K., Inenaga, K., Tamkun, M.M., Yoshida, S. and Noda, M., Nax channel involved in CNS sodium-level sensing, Nature Neuroscience 5, 511-512 (2002)

Zubair, M., Watanabe, E., Fukada, M. and Noda, M., Genetic labeling of specific axonal pathways in the mouse central nervous system, European Journal of Neuroscience 15, 807-814 (2002)

Watanabe, E., Fujikawa, A., Matsunaga, H., Yasoshima, Y., Sako, N., Yamamoto, T., Saegusa, C. and Noda, M., Nav2/NaG channel is involved in control of salt intake behavior in the CNS, Journal of Neuroscience 20, 7743-7751 (2000)

Shintani, T., Watanabe, E., Maeda, N. and Noda, M., Neurons as well as astrocytes express proteoglycan-type protein tyrosine phosphatase-zeta/RRTP-beta Analysis of mice in which the PTP-zeta/RRTP-beta gene was replaced with the lacZ gene, Neuroscience Letters 247,135-138 (1998)

Matsui, F., Nishizuka, M., Yasuda, Y., Aono, S., Watanabe, E. and Oohira, A., Occurrence of an N-terminal proteolytic fragment of neurocan, not a C-terminal half, in a perineuronal net in the adult rat cerebrum, Brain Research 790, 45-51 (1998)

Yasuda, Y., Tokita, Y., Aono, S., Matsui, F., Ono, T., Sonta, S., Watanabe, E., Nakanishi, Y. and Oohira, A., Cloning and chromosomal mapping of the human gene of neuroglycan C (NGC), a neuronal transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with an EGF module, Neuroscience Research 32, 313-322 (1998)

Katoh-Semba, R., Matsuda, M., Watanabe, E., Maeda, N. and Oohira, A., Two types of brain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan: their distribution and possible functions in the rat embryo., Neuroscience Research 31, 273-282 (1998)

Watanabe, E., Matsui, F., Keino, H., Ono, K., Kushima, Y., Noda, M. and Oohira, A., A membrane-bound heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is transiently expressed on growing axons in the rat brain, Journal of Neuroscience Research 44,84-96 (1996)

Watanabe, E., Maeda, N., Matsui, F., Kushima, Y., Noda, M. and Oohira, A., Neuroglycan C, a novel membrane-spanning chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that is restricted to the brain., Journal of Biological Chemistry 270, 26876-26882 (1995)

Watanabe, E., Aono, S., Matsui, F., Yamada, Y., Naruse, I. and Oohira, A., Distribution of a brain-specific proteoglycan, neurocan, and the corresponding mRNA during the formation of barrels in the rat somatosensory cortex, European Journal of Neuroscience 7, 547-554 (1995)

Oohira, A., Kushima, Y., Matsui, F. and Watanabe, E., Detection of alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor related prteins bearing chondroitin sulfate both in the juvenile rat brain and in the conditioned medium of primary cultured astrocytes, Neuroscience Letters 189, 25-28 (1995)

Oohira A, Matsui F, Watanabe E, Kushima Y, and Maeda N., Developmentally regulated expression of a brain specific species of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, neurocan, identified with a monoclonal antibody IG2 in the rat cerebrum. Neuroscience 60, 145-157 (1994)

Oohira, A., Katoh-Semba, R., Watanabe, E. and Matsui, F., Brain development and multiple molecular species of proteoglycan, Neuroscience Research 20, 195-207 (1994)

Matsui, F., Watanabe, E. and Oohira, A., Immunological identification of two proteoglycan fragments derived from neurocan, a brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, Neurochemistry International 25, 425-431 (1994)

Watanabe, E., Fujita, S.C., Murakami, F., Hayashi, M. and Matsumura, M., A monoclonal antibody identifies a novel epitope surrounding a subpopulation of the mammalian central neurons, Neuroscience 29, 645-657 (1989)

Kobayashi, H., Watanabe, E. and Murakami, F., Growth cones of dorsal root ganglion but not retina collapse and avoid oligodendrocytes in culture, Devlomental Biology 168, 383-394 (1995)

Watanabe, E., Hosokawa, H., Kobayashi, H. and Murakami, F., Low density, but not high density, C6 glioma cells support dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurite outgrowth, European Journal of Neuroscience 6, 1354-1361 (1994)

Watanabe, E. and Murakami, F., Cell attachment to and neurite outgrowth on tissue sections of developing, mature and lesioned brain, the role of inhibitory factor(s) in the CNS white matter, Neuroscience Research 8, 83-99 (1990)

Watanabe, E. and Murakami, F., Preferential adhesion of chick central neurons to the gray matter of the central nervous system, Neuroscience Letters 97, 69-74 (1989)